the Julian Pre-alps protect this area from the Northern cold winds and the nearness to the Adriatic sea grants a mild and temperate climate. Therefore in the last century Gorizia was called the Adriatic Nice.
A particular feature of this area is the temperature dropping in the night, giving particular aromas to grapes. Collio soil is made by silt and sandstones. Million year ago the ocean floor was filled with silt and clay before being pushed up from under the waters as the Alps began to be formed, which is confirmed by frequent fossils' finding. These mountains had been progressively worn down by weathering and transformed into hills.
Silt is here called ponka and, during working processes and weathering, it can be easily disintegrated into fragments and then into ideal soil for vineyard cultivation. Winemakers plant grass between every row of vine in order to get a better soil structure and to slow erosion. Beside vineyards we keep woods of acacias, oaks, hornbeams and ash trees in order to maintain the natural balance between cultivated and non-cultivated areas with wild flora and fauna.